Sunday, 19 July 2020

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Biosphere is defined as the part of the earth in which life exist,it act as an envelope holding a variety of biotic communities living both in aquatic and terrestrial media.Life does not exist in pinnacle of highest mountain,deeper region of desert and extremely polluted area 


The extension of biosphere upward is more limited relative to its extension downward in the ocean .Chlorophyll-II containing plants can not survive in very high altitude ,due to lack of liquid water and less concentration of carbon -di- oxide .Above limited heights spider,s pollen grains,other  organic particles may be floating  and its zone is called Aeolian zone .life only inhabit in a small portion of the earth and may comprise the surface layer of the soil upper few metres or few feet deep in the ocean ,lakes,river ,streams and few kilometre in altitude in atmosphere  inhabited by organisms that fly or floats such as birds or bacteria .This life containing zone is known as biosphere 

      Biosphere zone is active biological zone of production ,through photosynthesis varies from habitat to habitat .The organism in the biosphere depend for energy from the zone of active biological production


Biosphere is composed of all living beings in the entity from simple to complex ,from man to microbe and from plant to animals. The all living organism in the earth are confined to a thin mantle 
of atmosphere (gas, vapour and water ) hydrosphere (Ocean ) and lithosphere (earth crust)
Biosphere is the environment of the earth that support life .Biosphrer is composed of three aboitic 
environment namely hydrosphere ,lithosphere ,and atmosphere and all are dependent to each other for exchange of material and energy 

Biosphere is large global ecosystem where it is related to hydrosphere ,lithosphere and atmosphere
Biosphere sometimes known as ecoshp.ere

Nature of biosphere 

1.Water as the vast dispersion medium

Water is the most valuable liquid in a living system,without water life can not exist ,it is a universal solvent ,in a cell around 70% of water present and on the earth surface  three-fourth area is covered by water body.most of the water is present in the ocean and only one percent of water is fresh water
Thousands of marine plants simple to complex ,planktonic  are found on the upper layer of the sea water ,on which several sea animals depends and collect their food from sea water 

2.Unidirectional flow of energy 

Transfer of energy in a food chain always unidirectional -frm sun to primary producer-from primary producer to herbivor  form herbivore to primary carnivore -from primary carnivore to secondary carnivore-from secondary carnivore to top carnivore.Cycling of bioelements occur in three levels -
1.individual organism level ,2. ecosystem level,3. biospheric level .In biospheric level inorganic chemicals occur and transform into matter and which exchanged in food chain .The organic production of plant transfer to animal by food consumption by animals ,bacteria and fungi help in recycling process by returning plant and animals  decomposition product in inorganic form ,thus food materials flows in a cyclic manner in the food chain .Biosphere act as massive and vast pool for conversion of organic to inorganic form of elements and back ,continually take place through the living organisms .Such movement of material include carbon ,oxygen,hydrogen and water ,here the hydrosphere and atmosphere act as constant and important reservoir .All organisms use nitrogen,phosphorus,sulfur,sodium,potassium,calcium,magnesium,iron,manganese,cobalt,copper,zinc

Biosphere as store house of elements

Biosphere is a store house of elements -both organic and inorganic which has large importance to biological system such as carbon ,oxygen,nitrogen,hydrogen,phosphorus etc
These vital elements are utilised by living systems in the forms of carbon as carbon-di-oxide,oxygen as gas or water,nitrogen as amonia etc.All elements move in a cyclic manner .

Active productivity and biomass formation in the biosphere 

Sun is the ultimate source of energy for biosphere ,aquatic and land plant make food by the process of photosynthesis ,the  energy of biosphere depend upon the photosynthetic reduction of carbon-di-oxide to form organic compounds (carbohydrates) and molecular oxygen by using chlorophyll II of blue green algae ,phytoplankton,photosynthetic green and purple bacteria.
plants have great significance in productivity ,production of highest organic yield with the aid of soil ,water and air in prescence of radiant energy

Reference book-Nalanda Publication
Thank you.


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